July 24, 2024

The CAN (Controller Area Network) protocol is a widely used communication standard in the automotive industry and beyond. With its ability to enable seamless communication between various electronic systems, it has become an essential component in modern vehicles. But which ISO standard is used for CAN? In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into the world of ISO standards and uncover the answer to this question. Whether you’re a seasoned professional or a curious enthusiast, this guide has something for everyone. So, let’s get started and discover the ISO standard that powers the CAN protocol.

Introduction to CAN and ISO Standards

What is CAN?

CAN, or Controller Area Network, is a serial communication protocol used in the automotive industry for connecting electronic control units (ECUs) within a vehicle. Developed by Robert Bosch GmbH in the late 1980s, it has since become the de facto standard for in-vehicle communication networks. The CAN protocol allows ECUs to communicate with each other and the vehicle’s central computer, enabling seamless exchange of data and control signals.

Importance of ISO Standards for CAN

The ISO standard for CAN (Controller Area Network) is a critical component of the automotive industry, enabling seamless communication between various electronic systems within a vehicle. This standardization ensures interoperability, reliability, and safety across different vehicle models and manufacturers.

ISO standards for CAN are crucial for several reasons:

  1. Interoperability: The ISO standard ensures that different components and systems within a vehicle can communicate with each other seamlessly. This is particularly important in modern vehicles with numerous electronic systems, such as engine control units, brake systems, and infotainment systems. Without a standardized protocol, these systems would not be able to communicate effectively, leading to potential safety issues and reduced functionality.
  2. Reliability: The ISO standard for CAN specifies the physical layer, data link layer, and application layer requirements for the network. This ensures that all components conforming to the standard operate reliably and consistently. The standardized protocol reduces the risk of data loss, errors, or other communication issues that could affect the performance of the vehicle.
  3. Safety: The ISO standard for CAN plays a vital role in ensuring the safety of passengers and the vehicle itself. The standardized protocol allows for efficient and accurate transmission of safety-critical data, such as brake system warnings or engine faults. This enables the vehicle’s electronic systems to respond quickly and appropriately to potential safety issues, reducing the risk of accidents and improving overall safety.
  4. Flexibility: The ISO standard for CAN allows for future flexibility and adaptation to new technologies. As the automotive industry evolves and new technologies emerge, such as autonomous driving or vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication, the standardized protocol ensures that the underlying communication infrastructure can adapt and integrate these new technologies seamlessly.
  5. Global compatibility: The ISO standard for CAN ensures global compatibility for vehicles and components. This is particularly important for the global automotive industry, as it enables manufacturers to produce vehicles that can be sold and used in different regions without the need for significant modifications to the communication systems.

In summary, the ISO standard for CAN is crucial for ensuring interoperability, reliability, safety, flexibility, and global compatibility within the automotive industry. Understanding this standard is essential for engineers, researchers, and professionals working in the field of vehicle electronics and communication systems.

ISO Standards for CAN

Key takeaway: The ISO standard for CAN (Controller Area Network) is crucial for ensuring interoperability, reliability, safety, flexibility, and global compatibility within the automotive industry. It provides a common set of guidelines and protocols that enable different electronic control units (ECUs) to communicate with each other seamlessly. The standard ensures that devices compliant with ISO 11898 can communicate with devices compliant with ISO 15765, allowing for the communication of data between devices that are not directly connected to each other.

Overview of ISO Standards

ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is a non-governmental organization that develops and publishes standards for various industries, including the automotive industry. The ISO standards for CAN (Controller Area Network) are a set of guidelines and protocols that ensure interoperability and consistency in the communication between electronic control units (ECUs) in vehicles.

The ISO standard for CAN was first introduced in 1991 with the publication of ISO 11898-1:1991. Since then, the standard has been updated several times to improve its functionality and performance. The latest version of the standard is ISO 11898-1:2015, which includes several new features and enhancements.

The ISO standard for CAN defines the physical layer, data link layer, and application layer protocols for CAN networks. It specifies the electrical characteristics, signaling, and transmission protocols for CAN networks, as well as the data rates, frame format, and message prioritization.

The ISO standard for CAN also defines the CAN protocol stack, which consists of several layers, including the physical layer, data link layer, and application layer. The physical layer is responsible for transmitting and receiving electrical signals, while the data link layer provides error detection and correction, frame synchronization, and message transfer. The application layer provides services such as message segmentation, reassembly, and acknowledgment.

In addition to the standardization of the CAN protocol, the ISO standard for CAN also provides guidelines for the implementation of CAN networks in vehicles. It specifies the requirements for the wiring, connectors, and network topology, as well as the diagnostic and test procedures for CAN networks.

Overall, the ISO standard for CAN plays a crucial role in ensuring the interoperability and reliability of CAN networks in vehicles. It provides a common set of guidelines and protocols that enable different ECUs to communicate with each other seamlessly, which is essential for the proper functioning of modern vehicles.

ISO 11898: The Relevant Standard for CAN

ISO 11898 is the international standard that governs the communication network used in automotive and industrial applications. It defines the physical layer, data link layer, and application layer requirements for Controller Area Network (CAN) bus systems.

ISO 11898 specifies the electrical characteristics, data rate, and transmission protocol for CAN bus systems. It defines the frame format, error detection and correction methods, and the message priority system.

ISO 11898 also specifies the requirements for CAN-based networks in terms of data rates, maximum cable length, and number of nodes. It provides guidelines for the testing and diagnosis of CAN bus systems, as well as the necessary parameters for the network configuration.

The standard ensures interoperability between different CAN-based systems and enables seamless communication between different electronic control units (ECUs) in a vehicle or industrial application.

ISO 11898 has undergone several revisions since its initial publication in 1993, with the latest version being ISO 11898-2:2015, which specifies the physical layer and media access control requirements for CAN bus systems.

In summary, ISO 11898 is the standard that defines the requirements for CAN bus systems, ensuring interoperability and seamless communication between different electronic control units in automotive and industrial applications.

ISO 15765: CAN FD (Flexible Data Rate)

ISO 15765, also known as CAN FD (Flexible Data Rate), is an international standard for the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus communication. It is an extension of the original CAN standard (ISO 11898) and offers several improvements over its predecessor. CAN FD is widely used in various industries, including automotive, aerospace, and industrial automation, due to its high-speed data transfer capabilities and flexibility.

Key features of ISO 15765:

  • Extended data rate: CAN FD offers an extended data rate compared to the original CAN standard. It supports bit rates up to 8 Mbps, while the original CAN standard supports up to 1 Mbps. This increased data rate enables faster and more efficient communication between devices on the CAN bus.
  • Flexible frame format: CAN FD provides a flexible frame format that allows for different frame formats, enabling the transmission of longer messages and the use of prioritization mechanisms. This feature improves the efficiency of the communication network by reducing the need for overhead and increasing the overall throughput.
  • Backward compatibility: CAN FD is fully backward compatible with the original CAN standard. This means that devices compliant with ISO 11898 can communicate with devices compliant with ISO 15765 without any issues.
  • Multiple transmission speeds: CAN FD supports multiple transmission speeds, allowing for more efficient use of the available bandwidth. This feature enables devices with different data rate requirements to coexist on the same bus.
  • Error detection and correction: CAN FD includes advanced error detection and correction mechanisms to ensure reliable communication. These mechanisms help prevent data corruption and errors caused by interference or other sources.

In summary, ISO 15765 (CAN FD) is an advanced standard for CAN bus communication that offers several improvements over the original CAN standard. Its extended data rate, flexible frame format, backward compatibility, multiple transmission speeds, and error detection and correction mechanisms make it a popular choice for various industries. Understanding the features and capabilities of ISO 15765 is essential for engineers and professionals working with CAN-based systems.

ISO 19248: CANopen

CANopen, defined in ISO standard 19248, is a communication protocol that extends the capabilities of the original Controller Area Network (CAN) protocol. It provides a higher layer protocol that is designed to improve the efficiency and flexibility of CAN-based systems.

CANopen is an object-oriented protocol that allows for the communication of data between electronic devices in an industrial environment. It uses a master-slave architecture, where one device acts as the master and the others as slaves. The master device initiates communication and the slaves respond to the requests.

CANopen supports various communication profiles, such as device profile, application profile, and network profile. These profiles define the communication structure and the services that can be provided by the devices on the network. The device profile defines the communication between devices and the network management, while the application profile defines the services that can be provided by the devices for specific applications. The network profile defines the communication between devices on the network.

One of the key features of CANopen is its support for remote transmission of data. This allows for the communication of data between devices that are not directly connected to each other, but instead, data is transmitted through a chain of connected devices. This feature makes CANopen suitable for use in complex systems with many devices.

Another important feature of CANopen is its support for error detection and recovery. The protocol uses a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) to detect errors in the transmitted data. If an error is detected, the protocol can automatically request a retransmission of the data.

CANopen also supports the use of different transmission speeds, depending on the requirements of the system. The standard defines four different transmission speeds: 100 kbps, 1 Mbps, 10 Mbps, and 100 Mbps. The transmission speed can be selected based on the requirements of the system, such as the number of devices on the network and the amount of data that needs to be transmitted.

Overall, CANopen is a powerful and flexible communication protocol that extends the capabilities of the original CAN protocol. Its support for remote transmission, error detection and recovery, and different transmission speeds make it suitable for use in a wide range of industrial applications.

CAN Hardware Specifications

CAN Transceivers

CAN transceivers are an essential component of the CAN bus system, responsible for transmitting and receiving electrical signals over the twisted-pair cable. These transceivers operate in accordance with the ISO 11898 standard, which defines the physical layer characteristics of the CAN bus system.

CAN transceivers can be classified into two main types: low-cost transceivers and high-performance transceivers. Low-cost transceivers are typically used in cost-sensitive applications, while high-performance transceivers are designed for high-speed data transmission and are commonly used in industrial and automotive applications.

Both types of CAN transceivers consist of a transmitter and a receiver, which are responsible for transmitting and receiving data over the CAN bus. The transmitter is responsible for converting the digital data into an analog signal, which is then transmitted over the CAN bus using a carrier wave. The receiver is responsible for detecting the carrier wave and converting it back into digital data.

CAN transceivers also have various parameters that can be configured to optimize the performance of the CAN bus system. These parameters include the bit rate, which determines the speed at which data is transmitted over the CAN bus, and the transmitter power, which determines the strength of the carrier wave.

It is important to note that CAN transceivers must be compatible with the other components of the CAN bus system, including the microcontroller and the CAN bus interface, to ensure proper communication and data transmission. In addition, proper termination of the CAN bus is crucial to prevent signal reflections and ensure reliable communication between nodes.

In summary, CAN transceivers are a critical component of the CAN bus system, responsible for transmitting and receiving electrical signals over the twisted-pair cable. They come in two main types, low-cost and high-performance, and have various parameters that can be configured to optimize the performance of the CAN bus system. Proper compatibility and termination are essential to ensure reliable communication between nodes on the CAN bus.

CAN Controllers

CAN (Controller Area Network) controllers are the heart of any CAN-based system. They are responsible for managing the communication between the different devices on the network, ensuring that data is transmitted accurately and efficiently.

There are two main types of CAN controllers:

  • Integrated CAN controllers: These are integrated into the microcontroller or microprocessor of a device, such as a car’s engine control unit or a smartphone’s application processor. They are responsible for managing the communication between the device’s peripherals and the CAN bus.
  • Standalone CAN controllers: These are separate devices that are connected to the CAN bus and are responsible for managing the communication between the different devices on the network. They are commonly used in industrial or automotive applications where multiple devices need to be connected to the same CAN bus.

Regardless of the type of CAN controller used, all CAN-based systems must comply with the ISO 11898 standard, which defines the physical layer and data link layer specifications for CAN. This standard ensures that all CAN-based devices can communicate with each other, regardless of the manufacturer or the specific implementation.

It is important to note that CAN controllers can be either 24V or 5V devices, depending on the power requirements of the system. 24V CAN controllers are commonly used in industrial or automotive applications where high power requirements are necessary, while 5V CAN controllers are commonly used in consumer electronics or other low-power applications.

Overall, CAN controllers play a critical role in any CAN-based system, managing the communication between the different devices on the network and ensuring that data is transmitted accurately and efficiently.

CAN Bus Topology

The CAN bus topology is a linear or star topology, where a single master node is connected to multiple slave nodes. The master node controls the communication and manages the data transfer, while the slave nodes receive and transmit data as instructed by the master node. The CAN bus is a shared communication channel, which means that all nodes can access the bus simultaneously, but only one node can transmit data at a time.

The CAN bus topology is designed to be highly scalable, which means that it can support a large number of nodes without degrading the performance of the system. The topology is also fault-tolerant, which means that if a node fails, the system can continue to operate without interruption.

The CAN bus topology is based on a hierarchical structure, where the master node is at the top of the hierarchy, and the slave nodes are at the bottom. The master node controls the communication by sending control messages to the slave nodes, which respond with data messages. The master node can also monitor the status of the slave nodes and request status reports from them.

The CAN bus topology is designed to be flexible, which means that it can be adapted to different applications and environments. The topology can be modified to suit the specific requirements of the system, such as the number of nodes, the data rate, and the transmission distance.

In summary, the CAN bus topology is a highly scalable, fault-tolerant, and flexible topology that supports a large number of nodes and can be adapted to different applications and environments.

Implementation of ISO Standards for CAN

Industrial Applications

In the industrial sector, ISO standards for CAN have become an essential tool for communication between different components in a system. These standards have been implemented in various applications such as robotics, automation, and process control. The following are some of the industrial applications where ISO standards for CAN have been implemented:

Automotive Industry

In the automotive industry, ISO standards for CAN have been implemented in various vehicle systems such as engine control, transmission control, and airbag deployment. These standards enable seamless communication between different components in the vehicle, resulting in improved performance and reliability.

Robotics

In robotics, ISO standards for CAN have been implemented in various applications such as manufacturing, warehousing, and logistics. These standards enable communication between different components in the robotic system, including sensors, actuators, and control systems. This allows for coordinated movement and decision-making, resulting in improved efficiency and productivity.

Aerospace Industry

In the aerospace industry, ISO standards for CAN have been implemented in various applications such as aircraft control, navigation, and communication. These standards enable communication between different components in the aerospace system, including avionics, propulsion, and structural systems. This allows for seamless communication and coordination, resulting in improved safety and reliability.

Power Generation and Distribution

In power generation and distribution, ISO standards for CAN have been implemented in various applications such as grid control, power plant automation, and smart grid systems. These standards enable communication between different components in the power system, including generators, transformers, and substations. This allows for improved monitoring, control, and optimization of the power system, resulting in improved efficiency and reliability.

In conclusion, ISO standards for CAN have been implemented in various industrial applications, resulting in improved communication, coordination, and performance. These standards have become an essential tool for communication between different components in a system, enabling seamless communication and decision-making.

Automotive Applications

Introduction to Automotive Applications

The implementation of ISO standards for CAN (Controller Area Network) in automotive applications has significantly impacted the way vehicles communicate with each other and their surroundings. This section will explore the significance of ISO standards in the automotive industry and the various ways in which they have been utilized.

Advantages of ISO Standards in Automotive Applications

ISO standards for CAN provide several advantages in automotive applications, including:

  1. Improved Communication: ISO standards for CAN enable seamless communication between various electronic systems within a vehicle, leading to improved overall performance.
  2. Enhanced Safety: By allowing for the exchange of critical information, such as brake pressure and steering angle, ISO standards for CAN contribute to enhanced safety in vehicles.
  3. Reduced Complexity: The implementation of ISO standards for CAN simplifies the wiring and connectivity of electronic systems within a vehicle, reducing complexity and improving efficiency.

Key Applications of ISO Standards in Automotive Applications

ISO standards for CAN have been implemented in a variety of automotive applications, including:

  1. Powertrain Control: ISO standards for CAN are used to control various aspects of the powertrain, including engine management, transmission control, and emissions management.
  2. Chassis Control: ISO standards for CAN are utilized in chassis control applications, such as suspension control, steering control, and brake control.
  3. Infotainment Systems: ISO standards for CAN are also used in infotainment systems, allowing for seamless integration of audio, navigation, and communication systems within a vehicle.

Future Developments in Automotive Applications

As the automotive industry continues to evolve, the implementation of ISO standards for CAN is expected to play a crucial role in the development of advanced technologies, such as autonomous vehicles and vehicle-to-vehicle communication.

Overall, the implementation of ISO standards for CAN in automotive applications has led to significant improvements in communication, safety, and efficiency within the industry. As technology continues to advance, it is likely that ISO standards will continue to play a vital role in shaping the future of the automotive industry.

Challenges and Future Developments

While the implementation of ISO standards for CAN has proven to be highly beneficial for the automotive industry, there are still several challenges that need to be addressed. In this section, we will explore some of the main challenges and future developments that are currently shaping the CAN landscape.

Communication Protocol Compatibility

One of the biggest challenges in implementing ISO standards for CAN is ensuring compatibility between different communication protocols. As more and more devices and systems are connected to the CAN bus, it becomes increasingly important to ensure that they can all communicate with each other seamlessly. This requires a deep understanding of the various communication protocols used in the industry, as well as the ability to develop custom solutions that can bridge the gaps between them.

Security and Privacy Concerns

Another challenge in implementing ISO standards for CAN is ensuring the security and privacy of the data transmitted over the network. As more sensitive information is transmitted over the CAN bus, it becomes increasingly important to protect against cyber attacks and data breaches. This requires a deep understanding of the various security protocols used in the industry, as well as the ability to develop custom solutions that can protect against emerging threats.

Scalability and Performance

As the number of devices and systems connected to the CAN bus continues to grow, it becomes increasingly important to ensure that the network can scale to meet the demands of the industry. This requires a deep understanding of the various performance metrics used in the industry, as well as the ability to develop custom solutions that can optimize the performance of the network.

Future Developments

While these challenges are significant, there are also several future developments that are shaping the CAN landscape. In this section, we will explore some of the most exciting developments in the field, including the use of machine learning and artificial intelligence to optimize network performance, the integration of 5G and other emerging technologies into the CAN ecosystem, and the development of new and innovative applications for the CAN bus.

By understanding these challenges and future developments, engineers and other professionals can better prepare themselves to take advantage of the full potential of the ISO standard for CAN, and help drive the industry forward in new and exciting directions.

Further Reading

  • For a deeper understanding of the ISO standard for CAN, it is recommended to read the following books:
    • “Introduction to Automotive Electronics: Theory, Products, and Applications” by Richard C. Dorf and James H. Hall
    • “Automotive Embedded Systems: Design and Implementation” by Richard C. Dorf and James H. Hall
    • “CAN Bus Explained: A Practical Guide to the Controller Area Network” by Richard Grubb
  • Additionally, online resources such as the following can provide valuable information:

FAQs

1. What is CAN?

CAN (Controller Area Network) is a high-speed serial communication bus used in the automotive industry for various applications such as engine control, transmission control, and vehicle diagnostics. It enables different electronic control units (ECUs) within a vehicle to communicate with each other.

2. What is the ISO standard used for CAN?

The ISO standard used for CAN is ISO 11898. This standard specifies the physical layer, data link layer, and application layer requirements for CAN bus systems. It defines the signaling, transmission rates, frame format, and message structure for CAN messages.

3. Why is ISO 11898 used for CAN?

ISO 11898 is used for CAN because it provides a standardized and reliable communication protocol for the automotive industry. It ensures interoperability between different ECUs and systems within a vehicle, and it enables the use of various diagnostic and calibration tools. Additionally, ISO 11898 supports various data rates and message priorities, making it suitable for different automotive applications.

4. Are there any other ISO standards related to CAN?

Yes, there are other ISO standards related to CAN. For example, ISO 15765 specifies the diagnostic services for CAN-based systems, while ISO 14229 provides guidelines for the design and validation of CAN-based systems. Other standards such as ISO 18143 and ISO 2409 define specific applications of CAN in the automotive industry.

5. Can CAN be used in non-automotive applications?

Yes, CAN can be used in non-automotive applications. It is widely used in industrial automation, medical devices, and aerospace systems, among others. In these applications, CAN provides a robust and reliable communication protocol for different devices and systems to communicate with each other.

6. Is there a newer version of the ISO standard for CAN?

Yes, there is a newer version of the ISO standard for CAN. ISO 11898-2:2020 is the latest version of the standard, which provides additional features and improvements over the previous versions. It includes support for higher data rates, extended diagnostic services, and enhanced security features. However, the earlier versions of the standard (ISO 11898-2:2003 and ISO 11898-2:2015) are still widely used in the automotive industry.

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